Additionally, with four other states—Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi—having joined South Carolina outside the Union, the meaning of “cooperation” was less clear. With southern states actively leaving the Union, war broke out. For the purposes of this article, let's stipulate that the preservation of slavery and the plantation economy was the primary objective in seceding from the United States. Candidates for the secession convention did not run as party nominees but instead divided between secessionists and cooperationists. Favorite Answer Louisiana seceded for all the same reasons as the other states that seceded -- it thought that the North was trampling on its rights and powers to govern its own affairs, and … Later, the state supported the Compromise of 1850 and did not send a delegation to that year’s secessionist Nashville Convention. His opinion, however, was not included in the official record of the proceedings. I think it could happen today. The overwhelming pro-secession vote at the convention undoubtedly overstates antebellum Louisianans’ commitment to secession. But too soon the ladies stopped designing battle flags and began making bandages. Palmer, Benjamin.The South: her peril and her duty. In his inaugural address, Moore told the legislators and visitors at the Capitol that a powerful anti-slavery party (i.e. Once war became the ugly reality of blood and death, fewer men wanted to enlist. I assume the question is referring to the American Civil War. "The Long Lost Returns: The Candidates and Their Totals in Louisiana's Secession Election. A draft or conscription required all men of a certain age to enlist in the army. Instead, the war dragged on and families suffered. He warned the secession threatened the interests and destiny of Louisiana, He predicted war, ruin, and decline. Courtesy of Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, A protest against the ordinance of secession. Texas, Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina all issued additional documents, usually referred to as the “Declarations of Causes," which explain their decision to leave the Union. The Southern States in the United States believed they had good reasons for seceding from the Union. The argument put forward by President Jefferson Davis in his memoirs that the issue of secession was wholly based on the South's efforts to restore the intent of the Constitution that states would maintain their sovereignty in a federal union is complicated. the governor of Louisiana that led the state to secession; organized the capture of federal arsenals at Baton Rouge, Fort Jackson and Fort St. Phillip . The four states that submitted Declaration of Causes documents were South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas. The spirited soldiers drilled to "save the South." It was taken by U.S. troops on April 25, 1862. The latter end of this thread is a discussion on tariffs, which is an economic history topic. Immediately thereafter, convention president Alexandre Mouton proclaimed the connection between Louisiana and the United States to be dissolved, and in a symbolic demonstration of this change in status, the delegates lowered the American flag in the chamber and replaced it with a flag depicting a pelican feeding her young (the image on the state seal). The conscription law included a substitution clause, which allowed men to pay someone else to take his place. Additionally, partially in an effort to protect its western boundary, Louisiana sent an envoy to Texas to persuade the Lone Star State to join its sister slaveholding states outside the Union. Some delegates maintained that cooperating with their fellow southern states now meant leaving rather than remaining in the Union. A quick and even lazy look at all the Southern States’ Ordinances of Secession and Declaration of Causes reveals that the war was indeed over slavery. “The Long Lost Returns: The Candidates and Their Totals in Louisiana’s Secession Election.” Louisiana History 10 (Fall 1969): 353–369. In total seven states South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas left the Union before the inauguration of Lincoln. Louisiana also contributed four key generals to the Confederate army – Braxton Bragg, Leonidas Polk, Richard Taylor, and P. G. T. Beauregard. The Catholics were predominantly Francophones of French, Spanish, African, and/or Amérindien origin. The newly formed Confederate government gained the political skills of Louisiana's ex-United States senators. Secession in the United States refers mainly to state secession.It applies to the outbreak of the American Civil War when on December 20, 1860, South Carolina officially declared their secession from the United States. 1) Election of Lincoln. Another predicted, "You might as well try to breathe life into a mummy of Ancient Egypt as to expect the Union to be preserved." A New Orleans factory switched from making clothing for plantations to making uniforms. A wealthy planter and slaveholder, Moore acted aggressively to engineer the secession of Louisiana from the Union by a convention on January 23. ", Sledge, Christopher L. "The Union's Naval War in Louisiana, 1861-1863" (Army Command and General Staff College, 2006), Wooster, Ralph. This is the anniversary. The bounty was a one-time reward for enlisting. People who believed in the doctrine of states' rights believed that the states could nullify federal laws. But the state's planters saw the increasing pressure from abolitionists as an economic threat. There were several reasons why the South wanted to secede from the Union. By the end of 1865, a number of former Confederate leaders were in the Union capital looking to claim their seats in Congress. The states that seceded were South Carolina,Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Louisiana. But life in any training camp was difficult. What was the first state that seceded the Union? If that was the point of secession, then the strategy was an obvious disaster. Secession precipitated the American Civil War. That may sound silly to readers. Providing adequate food and supplies was a constant problem. The beef was preserved by salting it. The South believed in the concept of slavery. That happened in 1861. South Carolina seceded first, on December 20, 1860. Four border states held slaves but remained in the Union. Not only did the state cast its electoral votes for John C. Breckinridge, the candidate of the southern wing of the Democratic Party, but the election resulted in the triumph of Republican Abraham Lincoln, who had not received a single popular vote in Louisiana. When Lincoln comes to power it behaves as if nothing had happened. Secession was driven by the Southern planter class. Their new sewing machines became part of assembly lines. The reasons for secession were fairly consistent between each state in their documents. The women of Louisiana also helped "The Cause." These are important questions.” And, for the next two months, Louisiana’s voters and political leaders struggled over the best answers to these “important questions.”. Surrounded by swamp and with no safe drinking water, the camp was a poor location for an army. Post-Constitution, the first major threat of full state secession came during the Jefferson administration, when the New England states, led by Thomas Pickering, threatened to dissolve their participation in the Union. Instead, they endorsed an activist nationalist government, especially regarding a sugarcane tariff and government aid to business, in a manner more akin to the northern branch of the party rather than to other southern Whigs who advocated for states’ rights. Thomas Overton Moore was elected Democratic governor of Louisiana in November 1859. After the members arrived in their new location, they sent six delegates to the Montgomery, Alabama, convention that formed the Confederacy, seized the US Mint in New Orleans, and ratified the Confederate constitution on March 21 before adjourning on March 26. "Who Won the Secession Election in Louisiana?. An area to the north of Lake Pontchartrain attracted the Confederate commanders to a site with hills, tall pines, and good water. Governor Moore held office from 1860 through early 1864. They heard Lincoln labeled a "black Republican Abolitionist" who would end their (slavery-based) way of life. For the latter part of the war, both the Union and the Confederacy recognized their own distinct Louisianan governors. The American Civil War was a conflict that lasted from 1861 to 1865. That the people of the State of Mississippi hereby consent to form a federal union with such of the States as may have seceded or may secede from the Union of the United States of America, upon the basis of the present Constitution of the said United States, except such parts thereof as embrace other portions than such seceding States. Louisiana’s political leaders, particularly Governor Thomas Overton Moore and Senator John Slidell, placed themselves in the vanguard of state’s secession movement. Other events contributed toward the secessionist atmosphere in Louisiana. 0 0. tuffy. Yet, from an economic and political perspective, clearly, secession would have weakened the blossoming new nation and created an atmosphere that would have much more closely resembled war … Not only did the convention repudiate his protest, but the members even refused to include it in the official journal. They then held their own convention and named John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky as their candidate. Many newspapers reprinted the sermon, and more than fifty thousand copies were distributed. The cry for secession spread as quickly as a yellow fever epidemic, and the results were just as deadly. Later four more states seceded after the exchange of fire at Fort Sumter in April 1861. The convention itself briefly adjourned to move from Baton Rouge to New Orleans in order to allow the state legislature to meet at the capitol. We, the people of the State of Louisiana, in convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, That the ordinance passed by us in convention on the November 22, in the year eighteen hundred and eleven, whereby the Constitution of the United States of America and the amendments of the said Constitution were adopted, and all laws and ordinances by which the State of Louisiana became a member of the Federal Union, be, and the same are hereby, repealed and abrogated; and that the union now subsisting between Louisiana and other States under the name of "The United States of America" is hereby dissolved. Additionally, by the time Louisianans voted in early January, South Carolina had seceded, and four other southern states had elected pro-secession conventions. Secessionists captured the majority of seats. Soon afterward the grounds were covered with marching soldiers preparing for a very different contest. They heard speeches loaded with words like honor, self-respect, and principle. Judge James G. Taliaferro of Catahoula Parish was the most outspoken opponent. The documents can be found in their entirety "The Louisiana Secession Convention. Governor Moore had already ordered the seizure of the federal arsenal at Baton Rouge as well as Fort St. Philip and Fort Jackson on the Mississippi River. The idea of secession is not new, as the Theory of Nullification known. Some supporters of states' rights also believed that states had the right to leave the Union. They would "teach the Yankee a lesson... and settle matters within 60 days." The Confederacy needed an army. On February 4, 1861, the State of Louisiana joined the Confederate States of America, the new nation formed by the southern states that seceded. What shall these steps be? The pressure of the slavery issue split the Democratic Party convention wide open and led to a presidential election in 1860 with four candidates. Governor Moore began to organize military resistance at the state level, ordered the burning of cotton, cessation of trade with the Union forces, and heavily recruited troops for the state militia. The camp, although close to New Orleans, was soon abandoned. Ladies' sewing circles made uniforms and cartridge bags. The Confederate draft also exempted anyone owning twenty or more slaves through the so-called "Twenty Slave Law"; this exemption and the right to pay a substitute seemed to aim the conscription law at the poor man. 2) States vs federal rights. Because a large part of the population had Union sympathies (or compatible commercial interests), the U.S. government took the unusual step of designating the areas of Louisiana then under U.S. control as a state within the Union, with its own elected representatives to the U.S. Congress. Discovering the extensive salt deposits at Avery Island gave the Confederates a valuable source. Texas secession movements refer to the secession of Texas during the American Civil War and the activities of modern organizations supporting such effort to become an independent sovereign nation since the 1990s.. Often you’ll hear people defending the Confederate States’ rebellion (treason) during the American Civil War as an act of “States’ Rights” and not about defending the institution of slavery. Adopted in convention at Baton Rouge this January 26, 1861.[1]. Additionally, the delegates decided against popular ratification of secession by 84 to 45, contending that voters had already had their say when they elected the delegates. Cotton became King in the South in the 18th century. People cheered in the streets as fireworks exploded and cannons fired. These names and their colorful uniforms seemed suitable for the short and glorious war southerners expected. There were five main reasons for the secession of the southern state. They learned to ignore the bugs floating on the water. SUMMARY OF SLAVERY AS REASONS FOR SECESSION AND THE CONFEDERACY In summary, contrary to the Myth of the Lost Cause, preservation of slavery was the primary cause of Southern states’ secession and their creation of the Confederacy. In the wake of the convention’s vote, the state prepared for war. Virginia seceded, then West Virginia seceded from Virginia and rejoined the Union. New Orleans, Louisiana, the largest city in the entire South, was strategically important as a port city due to its location along the Mississippi River and its access to the Gulf of Mexico, and the United States War Department very early on planned on its capture. Camp Moore became the main training location for Louisiana's soldiers. Louisiana called itself a country for less than two weeks. To the question "What were the political and economic causes of the civil war?" trying to abolish slavery > The election of Lincoln > States have a right to govern themselves. Northern delegates to the Democratic Party convention supported Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, but the southern Democrats disagreed with his position on slavery, which they felt was not pro-slavery enough. Also, Louisiana’s Whigs did not share the small government proclivities of their southern neighbors. [2] The extremists among the southern Democrats, labeled "Fire-Eaters" because of their strong pro-slavery speeches, led a walkout at the convention. The governor called for homes and businesses to put lights in their windows to show their support. In the South, many twentieth-century libertarians thought they had found a political culture supporting free trade (especially through low tariffs) and limited government (using the vehicle of “States’ Rights”). Sacher, John M., A Perfect War of Politics: Parties, Politicians, and Democracy in Louisiana, 1824–1861. Secession. By the time the convention met in Baton Rouge on January 23, the result was not in doubt. A Bostonian piano manufacturer in Shreveport was advised to leave town because he was a known Lincoln supporter. First, John Brown’s failed abolitionist raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859 heightened sensitivity toward both immediate threats to slavery and to the strengthening Republican Party. ___. Three weeks prior to the contest, a Democrat accurately framed Louisianans’ options in the event of Lincoln’s victory: “What are we to do? The salt for preserving the beef came from several salt deposits around the state. After the ordinance of secession passed the convention on January 26, 1861, Moore placed Colonel Braxton Bragg in command of the state military. Lincoln’s election changed the political calculus in Louisiana. Benjamin Palmer. The former group endorsed secession, while the latter group included some unionists but mainly comprised those who wanted to have a conference of southern states prior to any state’s secession. To many white Southerners, a Republican was the enemy and a threat to their (slave-based) way of life. The official state returns, which were not released for more than a century, list secessionist delegates as capturing 52.7 percent of the vote. The U.S. state of Louisiana declared that it had seceded from the United States on January 26, 1861. Secession had a long history in the United States—but as a threat rather than as an actual dissolution of the Union. Political causes . In St. Charles Parish, a man was ordered to leave because he cheered on Lincoln. A wealthy planter and slaveholder, Moore acted aggressively to engineer the secession of Louisiana from the Union by a convention on January 23. Secession, in U.S. history, the withdrawal of 11 slave states (states in which slaveholding was legal) from the Union during 1860–61 following the election of Abraham Lincoln as president. The South was filled with talk of secession. Ranches in southwest Louisiana and Texas supplied the cattle for a slaughterhouse south of Alexandria. On January 26, 1861, the delegates to Louisiana’s secession convention meeting in Baton Rouge voted 113 to 17 to secede from the Union. On January 8, 1861, Governor Moore ordered the Louisiana militia to occupy the Federal arsenal at Baton Rouge and the Federal forts guarding New Orleans, Jackson and St. Philip. States were required to hold individual state conventions where they would repeal the ordinances of secession and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. Texas was the last of a raft of states to secede from the Union. We do further declare and ordain, That the State of Louisiana hereby resumes all rights and powers heretofore delegated to the Government of the United States of America; that her citizens are absolved from all allegiance to said Government; and that she is in full possession and exercise of all those rights of sovereignty which appertain to a free and independent State. Privately they maintained that they opposed immediate secession but felt obliged to follow the lead of their constituents. Privacy Policy. In 1861, Louisiana was ready for war in the only attitude. 5) fight between Slave and Non-Slave State Proponents . ); Louisiana was the sixth slave state to declare that it had seceded from the U.S. and joined the C.S. We do further declare and ordain, That all rights acquired and vested under the Constitution of the United States, or any act of Congress, or treaty, or under any law of this State, and not incompatible with this ordinance, shall remain in force and have the same effect as if this ordinance had not been passed. Lv 7. When the first soldiers left home, they expected to return quickly. Camp Walker, located at the Metairie Race Track, became the first training site. First, you must understand the demographic of the State at the time. The last horse race was run there on April 9, 1861. The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Confederate States or the Confederacy, was an unrecognized breakaway state in existence from February 8, 1861, to May 9, 1865, that fought against the United States of America during the American Civil War. Louisiana secedes from the Union. After voting 113 to 17 in favor of secession on the third day of the convention, the delegates strove to maintain all appearances of unity. In Charleston garrison of Fort Sunter remains faithful to the Union and does not leave. Example: Yes, I would like to receive emails from 64 Parishes. Both motivations alone were not enough. Louisiana, like the other states, could not see the desolation that lay ahead when it entered a war expected to last only a few weeks. A discourse, delivered in the First Presbyterian Church, New Orleans, on Thursday, November 29, 1860, by B.M. This method left the meat tough and very salty, and the soldiers had to boil the meat for hours before they could eat it. Reasons for Secession . In particular, Governor Moore’s pro-secession speech at the opening of the special December legislative session set the mood for the election of convention delegates on January 7, 1861. Many believe that secession is what caused the war too. In November, Benjamin Palmer, a leading Presbyterian minister in New Orleans, delivered a sermon declaring divine sanction for secession. [6], United States presidential election, 1860, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louisiana_secession&oldid=995971726, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Dew, Charles B. These documents were sent to the federal government and stated that state's particular reasons for seceding from the Union. Brine was pumped out of the ground and boiled down in kettles to get the salt. Taliaferro, James G (Author). On December 20, 1860, South Carolina, seceded. Okay, this post is in the wrong thread. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963. 8 years ago. Finding respite in 64 PARISHES during the COVID-19 crisis? On January 26, 1861, the Secession Convention voted 113 to 17 to adopt the Ordinance of Secession. Dew, Charles B. It will not start the war in the north and the Federal Union thinks that the South is still part of it while the southern states did not agree. Winters, John D. The Civil War in Louisiana. When war erupted, he unsuccessfully lobbied the Confederate government in Richmond for a strong defense of New Orleans. On February 1, 1861, delegates of the state of Texas resolved to secede from the federal Union of the United States of America. Louisiana kept this independent status until March 21, 1861, when it transferred its allegiance to the Confederate States of America. Nevertheless, their public actions certainly pushed their fellow Louisianans away from the Union. Shall we remain quiet and wait to see him inaugurated, and develop his plan and policy or shall we anticipate what it will be, and act at once to takes steps for our self-preservation? New Orleans: Printed at the office of the True witness and sentinel, 1860. The Republican Party did not even exist in Louisiana, so Lincoln's name was not on the ballot there. American Civil War. He took the oath of office on January 23, 1860. One New Orleans newspaper said the Republican Party opposed the "dignity, interest, and well-being of Louisiana." One-Year subscription (4 issues) : $20.00, Two-Year subscription (8 issues) : $35.00, © 64 Parishes 2021. The new president of the United States had not received one vote in the state. One reason had to deal with slavery. What reasons did South Carolina give to seceding from the union in the 'Ordinance of Secession and Declaration and Causes of Secession'? Most of the state's citizens celebrated secession. Soldiers on both sides called the Civil War "a rich man's war and a poor man's fight.". Another faction of southerners with hopes to preserve the Union, which included many former Whigs, formed the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John C. Bell of Tennessee as a moderate compromise candidate. 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